Unitarianism is an integral state formation, the administrative-territorial units of which have no signs of sovereignty. At the same time, there is a unified constitution for the whole state, a common system of law, a unified system of state authorities, which creates the necessary organizational and legal prerequisites for centralized management of social processes, strengthening the influence of central authority throughout the state.

A large majority of the world’s states (166 of the 193 UN member states) have a unitary system of government.


Example of a Unitary government system

Unlike Spain and Great Britain, where we are talking about different ethnic groups united within one state, in Italy, we can talk about a more or less homogeneous ethnic group with significant regional characteristics. It is traditionally accepted that a specific civilizational and social conflict exists in Italy between the North and the South. This is difficult to deny, especially given the ever-growing popularity of political forces that in one way or another call for a secession of the North of Italy.

At the same time, the problem is much more profound. It is safe to say that there are significant differences between not just regions but even cities within the same region. The very origin of this problem has very deep roots. It is sufficient to consider that until the unification of Italy in 1861, different legal and administrative systems operated in the different territories of the state. Virtually all the actors in the unification process were in favor of an Italy at least federal, and preferably even confederal. Only a few representatives of the republican movement, distinguished only by their theoretical treatises, were in favor of a unitary state.

The very fact of Italy’s formation as a unitary state is surprising. Hardly anywhere else can one find an example of Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian general, patriot, and republican himself, seizing half the country and giving it to King Victor Emmanuel II di Savoia. Italy subsequently developed a highly centralized system of government in which the prefect, the most important figure at the regional level, was appointed from the center. Almost everything depended on the prefect, from the results of national elections to the socio-economic development of a region.

Italy is generally considered a unitary State, as the State Constitution states, but also states that “the legislative power belongs to the State and the Regions”, that “Regions can conclude agreements with foreign States”, etc. Within the current unitary state, the development of constitutional and current legislation in Italy is taking place in the direction of federalization, which leads to a partial deformation of the political and legal system.


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