Historical chronology what you need to know to understand what situations, events and inventions positively and negatively impacted the development of cities and overall infrastructure, relationships and social development periods.
  • PALAEOLOTHIC (-6000 BC)

    The Palaeolithic Age was the period of the first use of stone tool, one of the most important Palaeolithic Age inventions, also widely regarded as the first-ever human invention, used for cutting/hunting.



  • MESOLYTHIC (6000 - 4000 BC)

    The beginning varies on region based on warming of the climate. People evoluted in using of large chipped stone stools to smaller (microliths). People hunt in groups to a more hunter-gatherer lifestyle.



  • NEOLITHIC (4000 - 3000 BC)

    Start of farming. Stone used mainly for making weapons and tools. People began growing crops, practising animal husbandry, which is control, cultivation, management, and production of domestic animals and a range of pottery.



  • EARLY BRONZE AGE (3000 - 2100 BC)

    The rise of urbanisation into organised city states, such as the city of Uruk in Mesopotamia, and the development of complex political systems, such as the city-state of Ur. The invention of writing and invention of the wheel.



  • MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2100 - 1550 BC)

    In the Middle Bronze Age movements of people partially changed the political pattern of the Near East. Rise of powerful city-states in the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East, including Babylon, Ebla, and Mari.



  • Late Bronze Age (1550 - 1200 BC)

    The Bronze Age was the most advanced in metalworking consisted of techniques for smelting copper. Age is specific by competing kingdoms and their vassal states. Copper trade played an important role for civilization contacts.



  • Iron Age (1200 - 800 BC)

    A culture characterized by the smelting and use of iron started in western Asia and Egypt. Age implements weapons made of iron, and creates the worst of four ages of the human race by danger, corruption, and toil.



  • Greek Era (800 - 400 BC)

    Ancient Greece achieved new heights in art, architecture, theater, and philosophy. Democracy was refined under the leadership of Pericles. One of the most achievements was the rebuilding of the Parthenon's temple.



  • Macedonian Era (400 - 300 BC)

    Kingdom of Macedon led by Alexander the Great conquered much of the known world from Greece to India. Ideas in science, philosophy, and literature. Established cities like Alexandria which became a center of learning and culture.



  • Hellenistic Era (300 - 146 BC)

    Death of Alexander the Great was a time when Greek culture spread throughout and influenced Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean regions. Despite political fragmentation, era was marked by relative peace.



  • Roman Era (146 BC - AD 476)

    Growth of a centralized, authoritarian state, with a complex system of laws, roads, and administration. The Rome became the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. A period of unrest and civil wars.



  • Early Medieval Ages (AD 476 - 1000)

    Era also called the Dark Ages begin with the "fall of Rome", and frequent Viking activity. Time of expansion of Islam in Africa and Spain. Christianity spread throughout of Europe. Papacy evolved into a powerful political entity.



  • HIGH MIDDLE AGES (AD 1000 - 1300)

    Signing the Magna Carta. Europe had become Christianized. The Papacy established as a political force. Growth intellectual renaissance, philosophers, universities. Feudalism of today was firmly established in this age.



  • LATE MIDDLE AGES (AD 1300 - 1450)

    Events led to 100 Years War, the Black Death, the Avignon Papacy, the Italian Renaissance, and the Peasants' Revolt. The Black Death, preceded by overpopulation, wiped out a third of Europe. First notes of Individual Rights.

    CENTURY: 14th

  • The Renaissance (AD 1450 - 1600)

    Growth of humanism, a philosophical movement that emphasized the value of individual freedom and the importance of reason and knowledge. Development of new scientific theories and discoveries of the solar system.

    CENTURY: 14th - 15th

  • Age of Discovery (AD 1600 - 1750)

    The Age of Discovery also called the Age of exploration and the Great navigations went exploring north and Americas by European explorers found new trade routes, cultures, and the enslavement of indigenous people.

    CENTURY: 16th - 17th

  • Industrial Revolution (AD 1750 - 1900)

    Great growth in technologies and inventions, transformed rural societies into industrialized, urban ones. The most of families and corporations that rule the business today's world formed global operations in this age.

    CENTURY: 17th - 18th

  • Modern Era (AD 1900 - 2050)

    Associated with the development of individualism, capitalism, urbanisation, and a belief in a technological possibilities. The era is on the top level of options across industries, individuals, art, or commercial presentation.

    CENTURY: 19th - 20th - 21st

  • Quantum Era (AD 2050 - 2200)

    Transformation of individualism into connected union. Belief in a technological possibilities and connection with the surrounded energy, The era is on the top level across understanding the universe physics, mass digitalisation, art, and decentralized connectivity.

    CENTURY: Global Development Trend

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